Salinity and drinking water

Category: Water | Tags: #  #  
“Water is the driving force of all nature.”
Leonardo da Vinci
In recent years, water salinity is becoming a serious problem for many households, specially in coastal areas.
Main problem is sea penetration into coastal aquifers, which pose a serious threat to municipal water supply.
This problem can become significantly bigger during droughts. In addition to reduced water supply, droughts are associated with significant increases in salinity.
The World`s Water
All water on, in and above the Earth
Liquid fresh water
fresh – water lakes and rivers
When we take a look at a globe , our planet looks like it has a lot of water. Statistically, 71% of the Earth is covered in water.
Unfortunately, we can’t use most of that as drinking water. Over 97% of the Earth’s water is salt water in oceans and seas. Another 2% is frozen in icecaps and glaciers. That leaves less than 1% of the Earth’s water for everyone to drink. As the Earth’s population grows, and many countries are further developed, fresh water is becoming more and more limited.
The total amount of salt in the water can affect the taste of water. Taste is extremely subjective and of personal preference.


52% Lakes
28% Soil moisture
8% Water vapor
1% Rivers
1% Water in living things
Accessible freshwater – 1%
Groundwater – 29%
Ice caps and glaciers – 29%
How salinity is measured
Salinity relates to the amount of salt in the water, where the salt can be in many different forms (salt used in food is sodium chloride).
Typically water can contain two or more of the following salts:
  • sodium
  • potassium
  • calcium
  • magnesium
  • chloride
  • sulphate
  • bicarbonate
  • carbonate
  • nitrate.
Majority of methods of measurement are based on TDS or EC measurements:
  • Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) – measurement of total amount of dissolved matter, both organic and inorganic, in solution.
  • Electrical Conductivity (EC) – is the ability of a substance or solution to conduct (transmit) an electrical current over a defined area.
TDS can provide you with an indication of the gross mineralization of your water.
TDS is mostly expressed in milligrams per litre (mg/L) or parts per million (ppm).
TDS guideline levels
According to TDS concentrations, drinking water quality can be rated per the following table (on the right side).
TDS mg/L(ppm) TDS g/L (ppt) Result
<600 mg/L
good quality
600-900 mg/L
0,6g/L - 0,9g/L
fair quality
900 - 1200 mg/L
poor quality
> 1200 mg/L
Monitoring your TDS is a good way to be alerted to any unusual changes in your water supply.
Measurements can be performed in aquifers, water sources and wells directly, depending on depth.
HANNA Multiparameter instruments can assist you for deep level measurement with cable length options of 4m(standard), 10m, 20m & 40m.


Portable pH/EC/DO Meter
with Bluetooth
Functional and accurate, this meter is capable of testing 12 different water quality parameters using pH, EC, and optical DO sensors. Transfer data to a smart device for review or sharing with the integrated Bluetooth connection and Hanna Lab App. Device is waterproof ( meter rated IP67, probe rated IP68). It has automatic interval logging of up to 45,000 samples or log-on-demand. HI98494 is perfect for environmental and industrial professionals.


Waterproof Meter
The HI98194 is a waterproof portable logging multiparameter meter that monitors up to 12 different water quality parameters including 6 measured and 6 calculated. The microprocessor based multi-sensor probe allows for the measurement of key parameters including pH, ORP, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and temperature. The probe transmits readings digitally to the meter, where data points can be displayed and logged. The HI98194 is supplied with all necessary accessories and packaged in a durable carrying case.


Waterproof Meter
with GPS option
The HI9829 is a waterproof portable logging multiparameter meter that monitors up to 14 different water quality parameters. The microprocessor based multi-sensor probe allows for the measurement of key parameters including pH, ORP, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, ammonium, chloride, nitrate, and temperature. The probe transmits readings digitally with options to log data while disconnected from the meter. An optional GPS provides location tracking of measurements. The complete system is simple to setup and easy to use. The HI9829 is highly customizable and supplied with all necessary accessories, packaged in a durable carrying case.
Two probes to choose from (Basic or Logging)
The HI7609829 (basic) and HI7629829 (logging) are multiparameter probes for use with the HI9829 portable meter. It is an option to choose which probe will be supplied with the HI9829. By default the HI9829 and corresponding probe will be supplied with a pH/ORP, conductivity and dissolved oxygen sensors. Either probe can be upgraded to measure turbidity with a turbidity/conductivity sensor.


Portable Low Range
EC/TDS Meter
The HI99300 is a rugged, portable EC/TDS and temperature meter housed in a case rated for IP67 conditions. It is supplied with a two-ring conductivity probe to allow for low range EC measurements from 0 to 3999 µS/cm and TDS measurements from 0 to 2000 ppm. All readings are adjusted with Automatic Temperature Compensation (ATC) and users are able to adjust the temperature correction coefficient and TDS factor for accurately compensated measurements.
  • One-point Automatic Calibration
  • Adjustable TDS Factor
  • Automatic Temperature Compensation
Besides that, household water can be conveniently
spot checked using a tester:


DiST 1 Waterproof
TDS Tester with
0-2000 ppm Range


Temperature Tester
(0-3999 µS/cm)
Low range EC: 0 to 3999 uS/cm,
TDS: 0 to 2000 ppm (mg/L)
Nives Vinceković Budor
With Great Product Come Great Results