Preparation for autumn sowing of cereals

Category: Agriculture | Tags:

The grain harvest has ended, but farmers are planning and preparing new sowings.
Weather conditions disrupted the established production of cereals and there was an accelerated ripening and with it came lower yields.

Any agricultural production should follow the rules of good agricultural practice. Agricultural techniques, spatial and temporal change of crops and crop rotation mean a lot to cereal production.
In the fields, farmers do not combine the sowing of oilseeds, which will be a good pre-crop for sowing winter crops.
Soil analyzes are rarely carried out, soil composition and nutrient supplies are unknown, and the most common problem is soil acidity. In practice, there are agricultural producers who, even with increased fertilization, do not achieve a satisfactory yield. By measuring and testing your plots on which crops are sown, it will be easier and faster to decide what to sow.
Of course, by measuring the supply of nutrients in the soil, we can plan fertilization and what we should do to bridge the difference between the plant’s need for nutrients for the expected yield and the supplies available to the soil managed by our farmers.
This is a complex problem, but it is not unsolvable.
Plant species Mass of 1000 grains (g) Sowing time (date) Min. Temp. Germina-tion (°C) Spacing between rows (cm) Sowing densi-ty (germinat-ed grains / m2) Sowing depth (cm) Amount of seed (kg/ha
Wheat – winter
35 – 45
October
5 – 25
4 – 6
12.5 - 15
400 – 700
3 – 5
200 - 330
Wheat – durum
35 – 45
October 15 – November 1
4 – 6
12.5 - 15
300 – 500
3 – 5
240 - 260
Wheat – spring
35 – 45
February and the beginning of March
4 – 6
12.5 - 15
500 – 650
3 – 5
200 - 280
Multi-row barley in winter
40 – 50
1.- 20. October
4 – 6
12.5 - 15
300 – 550
4 – 5
170 - 190
Barley - double row in winter
45 – 50
1. - 20. October
4 – 6
12,5 – 15
300 – 500
4 – 5
150 - 230
Barley - two-row spring
40 – 50
February and the beginning of March
4 – 6
12,5 – 15
350 – 450
4 – 5
180 - 220
Diploid rye
20 – 35
September 25 - October 10
4 – 6
12.5 - 15
350 – 400
2 – 4
130 - 180
Tetraploid rye
40
September 25 – October 10
4 – 6
12.5 - 15
200 – 300
3 – 4
80 - 90
Triticale
40 – 47
October
1 – 25
4 – 6
12.5 - 15
200 – 550
3 – 4
100 -260
Oats – winter
30 – 40
1. - 25. October
4 – 6
12.5 - 15
280 – 350 (600°)
3 – 4
100 - 150
Oats – spring
25 – 35
February to March 20
4 – 6
12.5 - 15
350 – 500
4 – 5
120 - 150
Soil preparation together with measurements that every farmer can make and look for an additional interpretation of the data obtained from tables and manuals is the main calculator in planning for the future due to the prices of fuel, fertilizers and plant protection agents.
Different types of cereals have different requirements according to the condition of the soil, therefore it is necessary to adapt the sowing of cereals to arable land that will provide them with optimal conditions for their growth and development. The pH of the soil (most cereals require soil with a neutral reaction for their growth), to which barley is particularly sensitive, has a great influence on the achievement of high yields. pH 6,3 -7,2 is ideal for wheat.
Wheat is a crop of continental climate. The most favorable temperature for its germination and sprouting is 14 – 20 °C and at that temperature wheat sprouts in 5 – 7 days. At a temperature of 7 to 8 °C, it germinates in 17 – 20 days, and at lower temperatures germination and emergence is even slower.
It is certain that in the future agricultural production will develop with irrigation and the availability of water for crop care. Of course, a selection of varieties and hybrids that are tolerant to drought and all other measures.
Also, the new plant protective agents ask the farmers to measure the sprays when mixing so that they are in the ideal range and that the plants do not get into a state of stress, and it is important for us that the protective agents are applied as best as possible.
Every ill-considered decision, inadequate agrotechnical measure will significantly affect the lower yield and of course lower earnings in the end. It is recommended to plan sowing, measure all parameters and seek advice.

HI99121

pH meter for direct measurement in soil
The HI99121 is the perfect field pH meter for direct soil measurement. With the HI99121 and HI1292D probe for direct measurement of soil pH and temperature, users can also test soil pH directly or after preparing a solution with deionized water. The HI1292D has a tapered, robust tip that can be inserted directly into moist or soft soil. For harder soils, the kit contains a plastic drill bit for breaking through the soil.

HI98168

Professional soil pH meter GroLine
Designed to bring simplicity to environmental and agricultural pH testing, the HI98168 GroLine Professional Soil pH Meter is designed for direct soil measurement. The specialized probe features a conical tip and a triple ceramic joint for improved performance in soils that have a low moisture content.

HI12922

Wireless pH electrode
for direct soil measurement HALO®
The HI12922 HALO is an innovative, specific pH electrode with Bluetooth® Smart technology that allows a compatible Apple or Android smart device to be used as a pH meter. This electrode is designed for farmers, hydroponics and greenhouse growers who need to monitor soil and substrate pH to optimize plant growth.

HI83325

Photometer for nutrient analysis
The HI83325 is a compact, multi-parameter photometer for use in the environmental laboratory or in the field. This meter is one of the most advanced photometers available with an innovative optical design that uses a reference detector and focusing lenses to eliminate errors due to variations in the light source and imperfections in the glass cuvette. This meter has 9 different programmed methods for measuring 8 key parameters of plant nutrient water quality, and also offers an absorbance measurement method to verify efficiency and for users who would like to develop their own concentration versus absorbance curves. Plant nutrient parameters include potassium, calcium and magnesium. To save valuable lab bench space, the HI83325 can be used as a professional pH meter with a digital pH / electrode temperature input. Now one meter can be used for photometric and pH measurements.

HI981030

pH tester
for direct measurements
in soil Groline
Designed to bring simplicity to soil pH testing, the HI981030 GroLine Soil pH Tester is designed to take direct soil pH measurements for environmental and agricultural testing. The built-in probe has an open reference junction, a conical glass tip and a removable sleeve design that makes it ideal for measuring soil pH.

HI98115

Groline
pH Tester
for Hydroponics
The HI98115 is a GroLine pH tester with advanced features for measuring pH in hydroponic nutrient solutions. The HI98115 is a very easy-to-use meter with all functions including on/off and one-button calibration. The HI98115 has a replaceable HI1271 pH electrode that can be changed as needed without purchasing a new meter. The HI98115 is supplied complete with a carrying case and calibration solutions.

HI145-00

T-shaped Celsius thermometer (125 mm)
The HI145 is a T-shaped digital thermometer with a stainless steel penetration probe developed for HACCP systems. It offers an ergonomic design and provides high accuracy measurements in a wide temperature range.
Author:
Saša Perica
struč.spec.ing.agr.
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