Cannabis – emerging alternative medicine from ancient cultural prohibition

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Cannabis is a plant mentioned in ancient writings dating back several thousand years before the new era. So we cannot deny that it has been with people since ancient times as evidenced by various archaeological finds as well as records all over the world. This plant is associated with many controversies precisely because of its traditional and long-term use for many purposes. The first records date from China, where the status of potent cannabis (≥0.2% THC) is illegal today, just like in the Republic of Croatia and most European countries. What is allowed in most countries is hemp that has up to 0.2% THC. The Republic of Croatia has been working for years on a rulebook for cultivation for medical purposes that will allow companies and hopefully private individuals and organizations to grow potent cannabis for the wider market , once the ordinance is adopted. Until then, growers grow hemp mainly in the fields where hemp is grown, and if the end product is tea, seeds or fiber.

For example, in the Republic of Croatia it is allowed to grow only those varieties that are from the variety list of the European Union, ie. varieties which theoretically do not exceed the above percentage for hemp. Also, anyone who wants to grow hemp, in addition to being forced to grow only certain varieties from the mentioned list, is also obliged to report their plots under the hemp plantation to the Ministry of Agriculture. It is obligatory for the application to be filed, otherwise it is invalid. It is possible to apply as a private person or as a business entity. Details of the application can be found on the website of the Ministry of Agriculture.

In modern times, hemp is increasingly being grown solely for its flower precisely because the flower is rich in various components that have been shown to be excellent for mammalian health. It has gone so far that it has been proven that cannabinoids from hemp can help in certain stages of the disease of patients suffering from various tumors. That is why hemp is considered the number one alternative medicine for pain due to almost no side effects compared to, for example, morphine. As there are several varieties, depending on the variety the flower will have certain proportions of the cannabinoid THC which is a psychotic and has an anti-inflammatory effect and CBD which is an antipsychotic and has been shown to be excellent against epilepsy and psychosis. In addition to many other properties, more and more work has been done recently to create varieties that have higher percentages of a particular cannabinoid such as CBG (anti-inflammatory) or THCV (a potential new drug for diabetics).
If hemp is grown for a flower, professional growers do so either in professional greenhouses or in highly controlled production facilities such as those where mushrooms are grown.
In North and South America, flower production has become a serious legal business for both medical and recreational purposes, and given that Slovenia is the first in the region to have a hemp institute, and Macedonia already produces the first flowers, it is common knowledge that Dutch tourism is based on cannabis. For the last 50 years, it is only a matter of time before it is liberalized in other EU countries, and the number of countries that allow the cultivation of not only hemp but also potent cannabis is growing day by day. The business scene is already showing changes in Europe, as countries with growing experience such as Switzerland and, more recently, the Czech Republic, have decided to raise the hemp limit by 0.2 to 1% THC, allowing their producers to be much more competitive and productive. if it exceeds the 0.2% THC limit it must be destroyed in other lower limit countries.
In the hydroponic cultivation of cannabis for a flower, it has been shown many times that it is “more or less”, and this is not only the feeling that guides us through cultivation, but today it is easily possible to check it with a pH and Ec meter. If you do not have quality equipment for measuring nutrients for your plants, you can not diagnose, ie. anticipate problems that are current or on the way. It’s the same with calibrations, I can’t stress enough how important it is that the device is properly calibrated!


 pH/EC/TDS/Temperature meter Groline 

The GroLine HI9814 is waterproof, easy to use, and features Hanna’s exclusive QuickCal mode. While other meters on the market use two separate probes for pH and EC/TDS, are bulky and have lower accuracy, the Hanna HI9814 delivers accurate results with one singular probe, is ergonomic, and stabilizes and calibrates in about 30 seconds. With its affordable price and practical design, users of any level can professionally monitor pH, EC/TDS, and temperature.

Designed especially for hydroponic, aquaponic, and greenhouse growers who need to test pH, EC, TDS and temperature, the Hanna Instruments GroLine HI9814 is a combo meter that measures all four of these parameters.
When growing cannabis for a flower in sheltered areas, nutrients are measured before each watering to make the plant nutrition as consistent and economical as possible. In professional plants, monitors that record every few seconds or minutes (depending on the model) pH, EC, temperature and humidity of the room are very necessary if we want to keep the crop under control. After all, this kind of data helps to see gaps and make the next batch even better.
Monitoring ie. Supervision of all components is of great importance for professional manufacturers because in order to produce according to certain rules of the profession, it is necessary to meet certifications that require constant monitoring.
In particular, in the production of hemp for human use, no means can be used and therefore producers strive for prevention in order to have the destruction of crops later. The amount of cannabinoids can be influenced by the quality of plant nutrition, and for hydroponic systems or large fields, it is most practical to do everything automatically. In the beginning, the initial investments are a bit higher, but in the end they are really worthwhile because they will save you many headaches and save you a lot of time, so in the end automation is more economically viable.
By monitoring tap water or water from reservoirs that is mainly used to prepare fertilizers, I have seen major changes in cannabis and hemp production plants around the world through 365 days a year.
HANNA Fertigation System can control the quantity of irrigation water based on time or volume. Different sectors can be irrigated at different times during the day with different water quantities.
With the Fertigation Controller, each irrigation program provides control of pH and conductivity. When necessary, a specific program performs a pH correction by the introduction of an acid or base into the irrigation water. pH control is based on multiple sensor input and a specific set point, while conductivity control is directly related to the level of fertilization.
When the systems were automated, there were no problems in bouncing in plant consistency and / or unpleasant surprises in production because the controller itself dosed everything needed for the day and the plant manager only controlled. It requires a lot less work than manual mixing which is never as precise as a controller and the controller itself adjusts the nutrients regardless of the water source as it automatically measures and doses everything.


Groline pH Dosing System


Groline Nutrient Dosing System


Marta Gold,
Director of a consulting company for cannabis cultivation, Sista d.o.o. (
“I have had the opportunity to work in plants and fields in the Netherlands, Canada, America, the Czech Republic and Croatia, and today I help people who have problems growing, ie who want to start producing hemp or cannabis either in the field or in protected areas. Also, people who want to grow their own vegetables at home, for example on a closed terrace or on the kitchen wall, I help automate and design the whole project. My final and graduate theses are on the topic of cannabis, and I am currently on a doctorate on the same topic, at the Faculty of Agriculture in Zagreb. If we want to grow something properly, and be profitable in it, today the efficiency and number of harvests is the most important (cannabis / hemp flower can be grown indoors over 6 times in one year)! My favorite way of growing plants in terms of technique is the hydroponic method which cannot be done without adequate equipment. We control the plants in a hydroponic way ourselves because we give them the nutrients from which they will grow, and in this way we grow the fastest and with fertilizers we control the fitness (health) of the plants, and thus the final yield and taste. Many years of experience in industry and developed international relations through Sista d.o.o. they allow me to always be up to date with trends and novelties concerning plant production. I am able to optimize your system and improve it to get a quality-to-investment ratio because I have devices for measuring the most important components in breeding and the applicable knowledge. Through excellent cooperation with other companies and through my doctoral studies, I am able to monitor certain parameters in order to get the maximum out of the yield and adjust the production to the expected. “

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