HACCP Analysis of bakery products

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Bakery products are products obtained by mixing flour with water, milk or some other suitable liquid with the addition of salt and other additives and baker’s yeast, which forms a dough that is formed, fermented and baked. Other raw materials can be used, so depending on the type of raw material, there are three groups of bakery products: basic types of bread and pastries, special types of bread and pastries, and other bakery products.

The production of bakery products begins with kneading, then the development of dough, fermentation and baking.

Kneading is achieved with moistening of flour particles (complete hydration of gluten proteins and damaged starch granules / dietary fiber), formation of cohesive and elastic dough with the help of flour lipids. By kneading, air bubbles are built into the dough. Different types of wheat flour are used to prepare basic types of bread and pastries, wheat groats, rye flour, and mixtures of different types of wheat, rye and other types of flour (corn, potato).

The dough is then fermented, and at the same time increases the volume. The process takes place in closed vessels at a temperature of 28 to 30 ° C. Fermentation can take up to 60 minutes, depending on the variety and type of flour and the method of preparation.

The dough is then shaped into individual pieces of different shapes and weights and re-subjected fermentation. It is baked at temperatures from 210 to 280 ° C, depending on the type. Baking time depends on the quality of the flour, the size of the piece and the method of preparation, and takes 10 to 20 minutes for pastries, and 25 to 50 minutes for different types of bread.

Temperature measure


Checktemp® 4 Folding Thermometer – HI151

The HI151 Checktemp® 4 is a folding thermistor thermometer that can measure temperature up to 300 °C (572 °F). These thermometers offer many advanced features including CAL-Check for an internal verification of the electronics and a motion sensor which eliminates the need of closing and reopening the probe when the meter enters a power saving mode. 

The Checktemp 4 is available in six different colors which can be assigned to different products to avoid cross contamination in the restaurant, kitchen or production facility.

Temperature Datalogger – HI148


From storage to shipping, it’s
important to monitor the temperature of your products to ensure that they are being stored in optimal conditions. Quick to setup, simple to use, the HI148 is a datalogger that is ideal for monitoring and recording temperature in applications such as food processing, transportation, museums, and horticulture.

The HI148 temperature dataloggers are available in four different models. Models are available with one or two channels with a combination of internal and/or external sensors. Loggers with an external temperature sensor

feature a stainless steel probe on a 1 m (3.3’) flexible silicone cable.

The thermologgers feature extensive memory capacity: 16,000 samples for 1-channel models and 8,000 samples/channel for 2-channel models. Logged data is displayed as both a table and a graphical representation in the HI92148 software. The graphical representation can be saved as an image file, while the data can also be exported as a spreadsheet for further data analysis.

Lately, sourdough bread has become increasingly popular. Sour doughs have an initial pH in the range of 3.5-4.2 and their dosage of 20% on the total content flour results in a decrease in pH to 4.7-5.5. The lowered pH primarily affects the composition of gluten. Like this weakened gluten has a higher capacity to bind water and CO2 resulting in better rheological properties of dough.

An acidic medium with pH <4 inactivates the action of amylase resulting in increased freshness and ultimately a lowered glycemic index of the final product. Lactic acid bacteria from sourdough can inhibit other undesirable microorganisms with production antibacteriocin and many other compounds.

To optimize your production process, Hanna Instruments is there to facilitate your production and optimize process conditions.

pH measure

Professional Foodcare Portable pH Meter – HI98161

The HI98161 is a rugged, waterproof, portable pH meter that measures pH and temperature using the specialized FC2023 Foodcare pH electrode. This professional, waterproof meter complies with IP67 standards. The HI98161 is supplied with all necessary accessories to perform a pH/temperature measurement packaged into a durable thermoformed carrying case that holds the meters, probes and calibration buffers securely in place.


The FC2023 that is supplied with the HI98161 is designed specifically for measuring pH in food. From a conic tip shape for easy penetration, open junction that resist clogging, and a Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) food grade plastic body that is resistant to most chemicals and solvents, including sodium hypochlorite. It has high abrasion resistance, mechanical strength and resistance to ultraviolet and nuclear radiation. PVDF is also resistant to fungal growth. The FC2023 is an ideal general-purpose pH electrode for food products that connects to the HI98161 with a quick-connect, waterproof DIN connector, allowing for a secure, non-threaded attachment.

Portable Food and Dairy pH Meter – HI99161 

The HI99161 is a Foodcare portable, pH and temperature meter designed specifically for dairy applications. Monitoring pH in dairy processes is critical to ensure the quality of dairy products. The FC2023 pH electrode features a rugged, easy-to-clean, PVDF body with a conical tip, making it ideal for measurements in semi-solids such as meats and cheeses. The FC2023 uses a free diffusion sleeve type reference junction which prevents the typical problems of clogging in viscous liquids such as milk or condiments.

HALO PVDF Body Foodcare pH Electrode with Bluetooth® – FC2022

The FC2022 HALO is a Bluetooth Smart (Bluetooth 4.0) Foodcare pH and temperature electrode composed of chemically resistant PVDF material.


This electrode has a unique open junction design in which there is a viscolene (hard gel) electrolyte layer that is free of silver chloride (AgCl) between the sample to be measured and the internal reference cell. The open junction design resists clogging and the probe’s conical tip makes it ideal for pH measurements in food products including dairy, dough, ground meats and other semi-solid food samples.

All readings are transmitted directly to the HI2202 edgeblu or a compatible Apple or Android device running the Hanna Lab App.

Measuring Sodium Chloride in bread

Bakery products are a great source of table salt. According to the results of a recent study conducted in the Republic of Croatia, the daily intake of table salt with bread and bakery products is 25 to 30 %.

Digital Refractometer for Measuring Sodium Chloride in Food – HI96821

The HI96821 is a rugged, portable digital refractometer designed for sodium chloride (NaCl) measurement. The HI96821 displays NaCl concentration four different ways: g/100 g, g/100 mL, specific gravity, and °Baume. The instrument’s high accuracy and simple operation gives reliable results each and every time. All readings are automatically compensated for temperature variations and displayed with a 1.5 second response time. The sealed flint glass prism and stainless steel well are easy to clean. Just wipe with a soft cloth in preparation for the next sample.


Water hardness

Water hardness is important in bakery industry because it directly
affects creating a gluten network in dough. In process of kneading the dough we add nearly 40% water. Dissolved minerals in the water can modify dough characteristics and bread quality. For baking, a hardness of 50-100 ppm calcium carbonate is considered ideal. Mineral salts, which are naturally found in water, have a strengthening effect on the gluten in the dough. If the hardness of the water is above 200 ppm,it can slow down fermentation and make gluten structure too tight which can lead to mixing difficulties.

Portable Total Hardness Photometer with CAL Check – HI97735

HI97735 is an advanced portable photometer for the measurement of total hardness in water up to 750 mg/L (ppm). This meter has a superior optical system that utilizes a reference detector and narrow band interference filters for extremely fast and repeatable measurements. HI97735 is an advanced portable photometer for the measurement of total hardness in water samples in the within low, medium, and high range. 

The low range measures from 0 to 250 mg/L CaCO3, the medium range measures from 200 to 500mg/L CaCO3, and the high range measures from400 to 750 mg/L CaCO3.

The HI97735 has an innovative optical system that offers superior performance in accuracy, repeatability, and the short amount of time it takes to perform a measurement. This compact, waterproof meter is extremely user friendly with a tutorial mode that walks the user graphically, step by step, in performing a measurement.

Author: Tajana Frančić, mag.nutr.