How to increase spring seeding cereal yield?

Category: Agriculture | Tags: #  

Cereals and oilseeds occupy an important economic importance in agricultural production.

Sowing of spring cereals and oilseeds is one of the important moments where attention should be paid to several parameters because different types of cereals have specific requirements and they need to ensure optimal conditions for their growth and development. The most important factor in achieving high grain yields is the pH of the soil, of which barley is the most sensitive to pH.

A pH value of soil between 6.0 – 7.5 is optimal for most crops, while higher or lower values can be a problem. We know for sure that the soils in Croatia are acidic and that this is a parameter that has not been taken into account or paid attention to for many years.

Fortunately, plants tolerate lower pH more easily than higher ones, and attention was not paid until there were problems with nutrient uptake, lack of organic matter and the presence of substances that inhibit root development and ultimately result in low yields for most plants. In addition to the great influence on all processes in the soil, pH has a significant influence on microbiological activity, humus synthesis, etc. The availability of nutrients depends on the physical and chemical properties of the soil, but also the processes in the soil as the content of organic matter, the sorptive property of the soil, weather conditions, pH and others. Alkaline soils with a pH higher than 7.5, contain a lot of calcium and magnesium and alkaline and saline soils contain harmful salts or excess sodium.

Phosphorus

Is the second most needed macronutrient for plant growth and development, right after nitrogen. It's fixation in the soil mostly depends on the pH reaction of the soil and other parameters.

Only by measuring the pH in soils, we can repair individual soils by land meliorisation, drainage, loosening and chemical correcions of low pH by calcification, increase the content of organic matter, enrich them with melioration fertilisation  and more.

Care should always be taken to measure the pH when performing calcification, as this procedure enhances the oxidation and release of nitrogen from soil organic matter. Grain yields in the experiments showed 11% to 18% higher yields after calcification treatment.

Table 1. Distribution of soil pH values (Đurđević, 2014 according to Soil Survey Division Staff, 1993)

Soil reaction soil pH
Ultra acid
<3.5
Extremely acidic
3.5 - 4.4
Highly acidic
4.5 - 5.0
Very acidic
5.1 - 5.5
Moderately acidic
5.6 - 6.0
Slightly acidic
6.1 - 6.5
Neutral
6.6 - 7.3
Slightly alkaline
7.4 - 7.8
Moderately alkaline
7.9 - 8.4
Highly alkaline
8.5 - 9.0
Extremely alkaline
> 9.0

Therefore, measuring the pH during sowing and especially after harvest is an important fact to adjust all plans for sowing new crops, nutrition, calcification and others.

Temperature

T-Shaped Thermometer HI145

The durable T-shaped handle fits comfortably in hand and is ideal for applications where applied force is necessary for insertion. The LCD positioned on top of the meter allows for easy reading.

The HI145-00 thermometers are equipped with a 125 mm (5”) long AISI 316 stainless steel probe. The sharp conical tip provides fast response and improved accuracy over the entire range.

With an automatic CAL Check feature, the HI145 series performs a self-check of its calibration status and displays it on the LCD. This feature ensures accuracy, repeatability and confidence in readings.

  • CAL Check™ Alerts users of calibration status
  • HOLD Feature HOLD button to freeze readings on the display

Direct pH/EC/temperature readings in the field!

There are several options of meters on the market that measure soil pH and EC directly and giving you an instant result. Technique is very simple, a probe is inserted directly into the soil or soilless media and results is shown on the screen instantly.

Direct soil pH and EC testing gives you the benefit of not needing to take soil samples, because the testing takes place right on the spot.

How to Test Directly in Soil

How accurate is this method?

Each of our meters has a specifically designed probe for the application and specifications showing the resolution and accuracy.

Professional Soil pH Meter GroLine HI98168 

The HI98168 is a rugged, waterproof, portable pH meter that allows for the direct measure of soil pH. This meter is supplied with a specialized pH electrode that has a rugged conical tip for insertion in soil.

Besides being supplied with a unique pH electrode made for soil analysis, the HI98168 has the Hanna’s unique CAL Check™ feature that alerts the user to potential problems during the calibration process. This is a very important since it is likely that the probe will be coated with soil. This coating can easily lead to errors in pH measurement.

By comparing previous calibration data to the current calibration, the meter will inform the user, with display prompts, when the probe needs to be cleaned, replaced, or if the pH buffer might be contaminated.  After calibration, the overall probe condition is displayed on screen as a percentage. The probe condition is affected by both the offset and slope characteristics of the pH electrode, both of which can be found in the GLP data including with the readings stored in the meter or transferred to a PC. 

Direct Soil EC Tester Soil Test™ HI98331

The Soil Test™ Direct Soil EC Tester – HI98331 is a rugged and reliable pocket-sized tester that offers quick and accurate readings. The Soil Test™ Direct Soil EC Tester – HI98331 features a stainless steel penetration probe for direct measurement of conductivity in soils. With a compact size, single button operation, and automatic calibration, Soil Test is an excellent choice for taking direct conductivity measurements in soil.

The World’s First pH Electrode with Bluetooth Smart Technology for the Direct Soil Measurement HI12922

Wireless Soil pH Meter HALO® - HI12922

Our HALO® Wireless Soil pH Meter has a triple ceramic junction in the outer reference cell, built-in temperature sensor, and the conic pH sensing tip making it ideal for pH measurements in soil samples. All readings are transmitted directly to your Apple or Android device or the edge®blu.

Don’t worry, If this seems a bit too high-end for you, we have variety of testers also for the Hobby gardeners!

GroLine soil pH tester HI981030

s an application specific designed pH tester for the measurement of soil pH. This meter offers many advanced features including the ability to clear any clogging of the reference junction, which results in a longer life than standard pH testers.

HALO2 GroLine Wireless pH Tester for Soil HI9810302

Is designed to bring simplicity to pH testing of soil for environmental and agricultural purposes.

Author: 
Saša Perica, bacc.ing.agr.
Nives Vinceković Budor mag.ing.chem.ing.