Environmental monitoring in karst area & awareness of caves’ importance

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A look into a cave is a glance into our planet’s past life and evolutionary changes that occurred through hundreds of thousands or sometimes millions of years ago.  

Caves formation in a simplified version

Again, we have CO2 to blame or to thank, because in this case the creation is beautiful and a proof that Mother Nature always has her way.

CO2 (from air) dissolves in water (or rainfall) making it more acidic. This slightly acidic solution, with a little help of gravity, travels through ground and slowly dissolving the karst rocks (limestone, dolomite, gypsium); through time (a lot of time) it actually makes holes that grow bigger and bigger and form openings. These openings in the bedrock increase and an underground drainage system develops. This allows more water to pass, which accelerates the formation of wider channels and the end result is a network of caves, sinkholes and springs.

As these openings have enlarged over the millennia, they have become valuable components of a number of animals’ life cycles. For some species, caves provide temporary (or occasional) shelter and/or nesting habitat. Other organisms have total dependence on caves and could not survive in an above-ground world.

People should also remember that when they help cave life, they help themselves.

The water running through many of our caves is the water we use for cooking, bathing and drinking so, when we keep it clean for the cave life, we keep it clean for ourselves!

The determination of pH in karst waters is important for evaluating such chemical processes as cave growth, speleothem deposition, and overall water chemistry.

With monitoring of our regional waters we can create better forecasts of future changes and make our planning & investments in correspondence.

Most important parameters for monitoring:

  • Humidity
  • Temperature
  • pH
  • DO
  • Conductivity
  • physico-chemical parameters (such as water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, oxygen saturation, conductivity, salinity, secchi disc depth, nitrate, nitrite, orto-phosphate, sulfate, chloride, total hardness, calcium and magnesium)

Humidity is most commonly affected by temperature and airflow. It can easily be measured by Thermo-hygrometer

Thermo-hygrometer – HI9565

HI9565 is a portable thermo-hygrometer designed to measure temperature and Relative Humidity (RH).

HI9565 presents the added advantage of being able to calculate the dew point from the temperature and RH.

To ensure maximum protection against the effects of humidity and condensation, the instruments are housed in a rugged, water-resistant casing.

The temperature and RH probe is a “smart probe” which consists of a factory calibrated electronic sensor which requires no user calibration.

Our “smart probes” will work with any of our meters without the need to recalibrate as the electronic sensor tracks the performance and stores the calibration history directly onto the probe.


HANNA Multiparameter instruments can assist you for deep level measurement with cable length options of 4m(standard), 10m, 20m & 40m.

Portable pH/EC/DO Meter with Bluetooth – HI98494

Functional and accurate, this meter is capable of testing 12 different water quality parameters using pH, EC, and optical DO sensors. Transfer data to a smart device for review or sharing with the integrated Bluetooth connection and Hanna Lab App. Device is waterproof ( meter rated IP67, probe rated IP68). It has automatic interval logging of up to 45,000 samples or log-on-demand. HI98494 is perfect for environmental and industrial professionals.

Multiparameter pH/ORP/EC/TDS/Salinity/DO/Pressure/ Temperature Waterproof Meter – HI98194


The HI98194 is a waterproof portable logging multiparameter meter that monitors up to 12 different water quality parameters including 6 measured and 6 calculated. The microprocessor based multi-sensor probe allows for the measurement of key parameters including pH, ORP, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and temperature. The probe transmits readings digitally to the meter, where data points can be displayed and logged. The HI98194 is supplied with all necessary accessories and packaged in a durable carrying case.

Multiparameter pH/ISE/EC/DO/Turbidity Waterproof Meter with GPS option-HI9829

The HI9829 is a waterproof portable logging multiparameter meter that monitors up to 14 different water quality parameters. The microprocessor based multi-sensor probe allows for the measurement of key parameters including pH, ORP, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, ammonium, chloride, nitrate, and temperature. The probe transmits readings digitally with options to log data while disconnected from the meter. An optional GPS provides location tracking of measurements. The complete system is simple to setup and easy to use. The HI9829 is highly customizable and supplied with all necessary accessories, packaged in a durable carrying case.

Two probes to choose from (Basic or Logging)
The HI7609829 (basic) and HI7629829 (logging) are multiparameter probes for use with the HI9829 portable meter.  It is an option to choose which probe will be supplied with the HI9829.   By default the HI9829 and corresponding probe will be supplied with a pH/ORP, conductivity and dissolved oxygen sensors. Either probe can be upgraded to measure turbidity with  a turbidity/conductivity sensor.

HI98198 portable Optical DO (opdo) meter

HI98198 uses a luminescent optical method for the measurement of dissolved oxygen in water and wastewater.
This professional, waterproof meter complies with IP67 standards and measures:

  • DO
  • Barometric pressure
  • BOD
  • Temperature


The HI98198 is supplied complete with all accessories including probe, smartcap sensor with built in RFID, and a rugged carrying case.

The HI98198 is supplied complete with all accessories including probe, smartcap sensor with built in RFID, and a rugged carrying case.

Advantages: HI98198 Dissolved Oxygen Meter has many advantages over other Galvanic and Polarographic Dissolved Oxygen Meters. This meter uses HI764113 Rugged Optical Dissolved Oxygen Probe for Dissolved Oxygen measurement which has following benefits.

  • No membranes
  • No electrolytes
  • No oxygen consumption
  • No flow dependence or minimum flow rate
  • Fast and stable readings
  • Minimal maintenance

Spectrophotometer iris – HI801

IRIS portable spectrophotometer is unlike any of the products we have created in the past. It is different from our photometers as it allows for measurement in the spectrum of all wavelengths of visible light and not just pre–specified wavelengths. Spectrophotometers work by isolating light at specific wavelengths from white light. This compact meter incorporates a number of features that facilitate both fantastic performance and exceptional usability.

  • Advanced split beam optical system
  • Rechargeable li-ion battery
  • User customizable methods

Some of the parameters include alkalinity, calcium, nitrite, and phosphate which are critical to maintaining a healthy system. It also contains parameters specific to either a marine or freshwater environment. You can also measure dissolved oxygen, ammonia, calcium, free chlorine, total chlorine, copper, nitrate which are important parameters for aquaculture and all water living organisms.



Nives Vinceković Budor, mag.ing.chem.ing.